«God said: Let the earth produce vegetation, seed-bearing plants,
trees bearing fruit with seed, each according to its kind, upon the
And so it was.
The earth produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to
their kind and trees producing fruit which has seed, according to
God saw that it was good.»
work is a sequel and the first
English publication among the unique series of volumes “Flora of cultivated
plants” started by N.I. Vavilov. Justifying the issuing of volumes of this
serial on separate crops, he specified this publication as an encyclopedia on
cultivated plants, major guidebook and directory for every biologist, plant breeder
and plant grower. By now, the N.I.Vavilov
Institute of Plant Industry (
Many years of observing plants sown in various regions have enabled us to find out new regularities in the variability of characters depending on genetic features of the species and accessions, and also on ecological and agronomic conditions of their growth. We have also disclosed new characters and their combinations, both taxonomically significant and genetically determined. This factor as well as generalization of the data obtained by other researchers (Zhukovsky, 1929; Kazimierski and Novacki, 1961; Gladstones, 1974; Maissurjan and Atabiekova, 1974; Kazimierski and Kazimierska, 1975) made it possible to introduce essential corrections in the intra-specific taxonomic and eco-geographic classifications of lupins. These classifications have been developed on the basis of Vavilov’s concepts (the doctrine about the species as a system, the law of homological series in hereditary variation, differential systematic and geographical method of crop studies, etc.).
The sites for studying lupin accessions were chosen with regard to the duration of vegetation periods, and soil and climate conditions required obtaining vigorous seed of each sample. The collection of white lupin was reproduced in the non-black-soil zone of the Ukraine (Kiev Province); yellow lupin in the forest-steppe zone of the Ukraine (Zhitomir Province) and on non-black soils in the Ukraine (near Kiev); narrow-leafed lupin in the non-black-soil region of Russia (Moscow Province) and in the black-soil zone of Russia (Tambov Province); multifoliate or Washington lupin near Pushkin (Leningrad Province, 20 km away from St.Petersburg); Pearl lupin (L. mutabilis Sweet.) and other species from America in the black-soil zone of Russia (Tambov Province). Besides, with the purpose of revealing the range of variability for specific characters and substances, the same accessions were also reproduced in other places. In particular, for a significant part of accessions replication were performed at the former Sukhumi Experimental Station of the Vavilov Institute (in Abkhazia) in the conditions of humid subtropics, at the former Central Asian Branch of VIR (near Tashkent, Uzbekistan) in the conditions of dry climate, in the black-soil zone of the Ukraine (Poltava Province), in the conditions of non-black-soil zone of Russia near the town of Pushkin (Leningrad Province, 20 km from St.Petersburg), and in Bryansk Province (at the All-Russian Institute of Lupin and Novozybkov Branch of the All-Russian Institute of Fertilizers and Agricultural Soil Science). Field investigations have been supplemented by herbarium studies and laboratory analyses. The purpose of this research is to accomplish comprehensive study of the global botanical and varietal diversity of different species in order to gain deeper insight into the problems of lupin geography, evolution and classification, and also to find out regularities in the variability of major valuable morphological and biological properties in various eco-geographic conditions of its cultivation.
The existing world-wide shortage of protein is generating
special attention to lupin. In
Due to their symbiosis with nodule bacteria lupins are capable to accumulate in soil up to 200 kg of nitrogen per hectare, thus being perfect symbiotic plants. Utilizing lupin as green manure helps to protect environments from pollution, go without expensive fertilizers, and obtain ecologically clean products (Lopez-Bellido and Fuentes, 1986; Lopez-Bellido, 1994).
It should be marked that the progress achieved by man in domestication of lupins is rather modest. Of several hundred lupin species existing in a nature, only three annual species and one perennial (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) are used in Russian agriculture for forage production. However, many wild species of lupin are promising for agricultural use. Besides, further efforts are needed to solve the problems of plant resistance to diseases and pests, higher adaptability to unfavorable environmental factors, and breeding of forms with high technological properties for agricultural production. With these goals in view, special significance is acquired by scientifically justified selection of breeding sources, diversity of such materials, and the degree of comprehensiveness in studying them.
In the outcome of long-term studies of the lupin collection stored at the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, it became possible to accumulate a great deal of original data on this crop’s specific and varietal structure, its geography, ecology, systematization, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and selection methods. All these issues are dealt with in the present book. It is based on our own researches, as well as on the research data received by prominent scientists, such as P.M. Zhukovsky, E.I. Sinskaya, B.M. Libkind, V.S. Fedotov, N.I. Sharapov, N.N. Ivanov, M.I. Smirnova, V.N. Dyubin and other experts who worked in the experimental network of the Vavilov Institute in different times, N.A. Maissurjan and A.I. Atabiekova who conducted fundamental research on lupin in Moscow Agricultural Academy. The national (Russian) and world literature on lupin has also been generalized. Russian references are made here in the original (Cyrillic) alphabet. In our opinion, this may facilitate their search and additional study.
Our work essentially supplements the book published in 1998 by the scientists
Originally, the present work had been written in Russian, but
later was translated into English. The
authors’ goal was to make scientific achievements of Russian scientists known to
wider scientific circles of the world. Unfortunately, the English version of the text may contain
discrepancies of translation and
stylistic faults. The editor is making an apology for this, as it is actually his first attempt to present in
English the existing voluminous materials about lupin
I would like to express my gratitude and compliments to all scientists of N.I. Vavilov Institute, continuing begun by N.I. Vavilov the work with Plant Genetic Resources. We could to generalize this work only due to close cooperation and dialogue with many of them. The special gratitude is expressed to Profs. N.I. Korsakov, M. G. Agaev, K.Z. Budin, N.M. Chekalin, G.G. Davidjan, B.N. Malinovsky, and V.D. Kobyliansky, to Drs. A.V. Khotyanovich, N.N. Nazarova, S.I. Pilipenko, Rybnikova, O.N. Korovina, T.V. Buravtseva, and F.T. Tarba.
We thank to the Government and to the People of Finland for warm reception and creation of favorable conditions for the work with this book.
All materials of the book are here!