The manus of a carpo from two viewpoints. (To be honest I have no idea how likely such changes to a avetheropod manus would be, or even if they would be possible...)


A spotted scowl, a small Eurasian scowl closely related to the NA spectacled scowl. (Dunno about the owl-like toe arrangement...)


Siren (Sirenavis scopulis) is an ichty-puffin that nests on rocky islands and engages in aggressive flocking behavior to drive away or kill any intruders - be they volant, terrestial or aquatic - from the nesting colony. Is known to feed on the flesh of the said intruders, though generally feeds on fish. Vocalizations of the species are said to eeriely resemble singing and moaning of female humans.


A weasel-like mammal of some kind. Well, of the sprawling kind, I guess.


Ceratociraphus is an Pliocene ungulapede browser whose remains have been found in northern Africa, the middle east and India. Originally it was tentatively classified as an offshoot of Formosicornidae, but a more detailed analysis has revealed this animal to be a ciraphadrid. The unusual horn arrangements of Ceratociraphus may give an insight to how the horns of their formosicornid (and ultracornid) relatives may have evolved, although those of Ceratociraphus were blunt and massive, probably used in pusing or butting contests beteween males.


The chotcho (Tussisaurus timmledorfi) is a small and seemingly primitive ciraphadrid found in the deep Congolese rainforest. This smallest member of Ciraphadridae was originally mistaken for a paleoungulapod because of its size and lack of proper evidence, save for occasional brief sightings. The holotype specimen however proved beyond any doubt that the animal was an unusual ciraphadrid.

Chotchos are often found near waterways and may use water to escape from predators. They are named after the loud coughing sounds that they make when frightened or otherwise agitated. Chotchos have small horn-covered bumps similar to those of the ciraf, which may hint of a close relation.


The four main horn arrangements in saurolopes. 1. two-horned (upper left), 2. six-horned (upper right) 3. down-branching (lower left) and 4. up-branching. Of these 1 is believed to form a group distinct from the others, while 2, 3 and 4 are believed to share a common four-horned ancestor. 2 seems to have split off first, while 3 and 4 split off later producing various branching structures in their horns. 3 generally has only two pairs of horns, but some taxa retain vestigial second horn pair, while 4 commonly has two well-developed horn pairs. In groups 1 and 2 there is rarely any horn branching, with the exception of some flat-horned taxa within 1.


The sahib saurolope is one of the largest oryxosauroid saurolopes. These animals congregate in large herds that take part in the great African herbivore migrations.


An updated black carpo illustration.


The nekopossum (Pullididelphoides benseni) is a small insectivore/carnivore metatherian.


The (Caspian?) seawolf, a large selkie.


All material on this page is copyright © M. Aumala 2004